Rights, Permissions and Reproductions Policies
- Contact Information
- Copyright Resources
- Copyright Statement
- Credit and Citation
- Permission to Use or Reproduce Northwestern University Library Materials
- Reproductions of Northwestern University Library Materials
The Northwestern University Library provides access to its holdings for educational, personal, and non-commercial use, provided that ownership of the materials is properly cited. Written permission of the copyright holders and/or other rights holders is required for publication, distribution, reproduction or other use of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use. Publication includes, but is not limited to, print, film, slide presentation, video, television, and electronic transmission. Transmitting an image or file on the Internet is equivalent to reproducing and distributing that image in print.
Materials held by Northwestern University Library may be protected by U.S. Copyright Law and/or by the copyright laws of other countries. Copyright law protects unpublished as well as published materials. For web sites and digital files originated in the library we retain all rights, including copyright, in all data, images, and text. If you wish to use either published or unpublished materials from our collections in a publication, you must determine whether the work has passed into the public domain and is no longer under copyright protection, or find the copyright holder and get permission to reproduce the material.
Users of materials held by the Northwestern University Library are responsible for securing permission from copyright owners and payment of such additional fees as the owners may require if the Library does not hold copyright or if the material is not in the public domain. Users assume all responsibility for questions of copyright or other rights that may arise in copying and in the use made of the copy.
Other than use for personal, educational or non-commercial purposes, each collection or type of material in the Northwestern University Library may have different copyright or other reproduction restrictions placed on it. If you would like to use or reproduce materials from our collections, please contact us, specifying what materials you are interested in, and we will tell you of any restrictions on a case-by-case basis.
The requester must contact appropriate departments (see contact list below). Permission is granted to the requesting party for one-time use only, for the purposes stipulated in the request. Requests to publish must indicate the specific use intended. The requester is responsible for obtaining any required permission from the creator of the work or from the creator's heirs or executors.
Reproductions may not be reused for any other purpose, or published in any other format (including but not limited to: print, film, slide presentation, video, television, and electronic transmission); nor may it be transferred to another party without permission from Northwestern University Library.
The user assumes all responsibility for infringement of copyright or other rights and agrees that Northwestern University Library is free from liability for any infringement of use by the requester. Northwestern University Library reserves the right to refuse permission and reproductions to anyone who does not agree to these conditions.Please see the relevant department's web pages for contact information, holdings, fees, request forms, conditions for use, and citation and credit formats.
The standard credit line for materials from the Northwestern University Library is as follows: "Courtesy Northwestern University Library". For preferred citation, see the "Credit and Citation" section on the relevant department's Rights and Permissions page.
Information regarding the cost of reproductions in various formats can be found on the website of the individual departments. Contact appropriate departments and inquire them for any other specific information about reproduction formats, terms, or fees.
- Charles Deering McCormick Library of Special Collections
- Government Publications -- World War II Poster Collection
- Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies
- Music Library
- Northwestern University PhD Dissertations and Masters Theses
- University Archives
- General Information
These summaries and sites provide helpful information about fair use and copyright law.
Fair Use: U.S. Copyright Office
§ 107 of the Copyright Law of 1976: Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use
Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include-
- the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
- the nature of the copyrighted work;
- the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
- the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.
"When Works Pass into the Public Domain": Cornell University